Beginning of the emergence of the concept first discussed the strategy for the Greeks, but more emphasis on the military and not on business. The new business strategy appeared a few centuries later. While the formal strategic planning began in World War II, the account after it there are four phases of development (Schnaars, 1991), namely:
1.Budgeting and Overall Strategy (1950s)
The emergence of modern strategy is characterized by two trends setaleh World War II, namely (1) the development of budgeting techniques (budgeting) and (2) attempt to find a way of integrated enterprise strategy.
Budgeting is the practice of financial and akutans to allocate funds in a company. In the 1950s there was just the annual budget use of funds for various projects within a company. Making a budget based on careful planning by considering all sales, costs, profits and balance in the short term. Because it is still in a short time it has not been able to reflect the strategy, the emphasis is only on controlling mak. Budgeting can control the operation of a company often disenut basic financial planning (basic financial planning).
b.Pencarian integrated strategy
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In the 1950s the theory bisni each just evolved under each discipline only. Suppose marketing will only discuss a marketing course, as well as with production also just membhasa production only. Each of these disciplines stand alone, without any integration of these functions achieve goals that benefit the company with overall. Because of the needs of their integrated enterprise strategy raises long-term planning.
2.Perencanaan Long Run (1960)
There are factors that affect the transition from budgeting to the long-term planning, namely:
Long Term Budgeting a.Konsekuensi
The annual budgeting decision has the effect of one year more to the company. Suppose the company fund its new project, the results of the funding will be felt a few years later. Therefore, annual budgeting is developing into a longer-term planning.
b.Minat the Goals and Objectives
Interest in creating a strategy for the company, which terintegrasidifokuskan on establishing goals and objectives objectively. Badgeting simple push to respond to the overall company.
The formation tendency Konglemerasi
This Konglemerasi complicate the allocation of funds the company needs. Basically the company to pursue berg = like different businesses but Risk Management is not familiar with the specifications and potential of each business.
As akaibat of konglemerasi it was not clear which businesses will be given substantial funding and which ones memproleh fewer funds. In 1960 terjado sekonomi boom so that it appears a lot of new business opportunities, but not all of the opportunities inventasi funded because of the limited funds available. Since the company semakinkompleks in operations that run the more required systematic planning. This encourages long-term planning, which has two characteristics, namely:
Goals and Objectives
Karakteristinya is the mission, goals and suggestions. This objective ditetepakan by top management and communicated to all members of the company. The strategy is designed for the purpose memeproleh ,. Goals and a purpose is a contribution to the long-term planning.
In 1960 the long-term planning based on long-term forecasting. Before doing long-term planning will be done in advance forecasting new ditetapka appropriate planning forecasting results.
3.The formula Planning (1970s)
Formala planning meruapak kosep consistent and understandable to allocate resources Adaiah companies. There are various formulas planning this but the most famous or the most digunaka is the Boston Consulting Group's Growth-Share Matrix (BCG) 2.
4.Strategic Thinking (1980s)
Strategic thinking was first put forward by Poter. Strategic thinking meruapak alternative for people who perceive stategic planning obsolete. Strategic thinkng create new trends, such as:
The transition from forecasting to competitive advantage
The transition of elitism becomes Egalitaranism
Peralhan competitors become competitors and customers
The transition from the calculation (calculation) into creativity
The transition from rigid to be flexible