term strategy is derived from the Greek strategeia (stratos = army, and ag = lead), which has the sense of art or science of being a general. This concept is suitable anciently frequent wars, where the generals needed to lead to always win the war. In this case the strategy can be interpreted as a draft distribution and use of military force in these areas to achieve certain goals.siklus akuntansi
The concept was adapted to military strategy in the business world, for example the concept of Sun tzui, Hannibal, and Carl von Clausewitz. In the world of business strategies to draw business direction following the developments and as a guideline for optimizing all of which are owned by the company or organization. Because every organization has limited resources and different objectives and therefore every organization has a different strategy. While these organizations have the same goal but yet tebtu resources owned by the same vice versa. The strategies used by these organizations as they face the following situations (Jain, 1990):
Resources are limited.
Uncertainty organizations to compete.
Commitment of resources can not be changed lai.
Decisions must be coordinated among parts all the time.
There is uncertainty regarding the control of the initiative.
According to Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, Jr. (1995), the concept of this strategy can be divided into two according to different perspectives, namely (1) from the perspective of what the organization would like to do, and (2) the perspective of what the organization is finally done.
According to the first perspective, the strategy can be interpreted as a program to obtain the objectives of organisasdi and also how to do or to obtain these goals. In this strategy has meant that the manager has an akftif role, conscious and rational in formulating strategies organanisasi. This strategy is widely used in the environment is always changing and turbulent environment.
While the second perspective, the strategy defined response or the response of the organization to the environment all the time. Each organization must pnya strategy to achieve its objectives, the strategy miskipun never explicitly formulated. This strategy is implemented for managers who are reactive, that is only in responding and adapting to the environment passively when needed.cara membuat email
The statement explicitly strategy is the key to success for face parubahan business environment. The strategy provides a clear direction for each member of the organization to achieve organizational goals. If the concept of this strategy is not clear, there will be a commotion among the members of the organization. And also the decision to decide the issue would only be subjective or based on intuition and ignore Hanaya other decisions. Whereas a strategy taken by carefully considering all the issues to be addressed to obtain organizational goals.
According to Hayes and Wheelwright (1984 in Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, Jr. 1995) of a company, there are three levels of strategy, namely:
1.Strategi Business in Corporate Level
The strategy formulated by the management in the highest governing all activities and operations of the company that memeiliki more than one business unit. Because the manager here will formulate all the basics of the company as a business what should companies do, target and goal for each business unit? How to optimize the resources or assets to achieve corporate goals
2. Business Strategy at Level Business Unit
This strategy is more directed to the management and operation of certain businesses. More appropriate strategy is used to determine how that will be used by a business tehadap Tergat to run the market and the way to utilize the assets dimiki under certain market conditions. Pokonya discussion is how the business will compete, services or products to be sold, the target consumer, pendistribusain resources.
3. Business Strategy at Level Functional
This strategy is in terms of management functions (such as research and development, finance, production, operations, marketing, hr, etc) to support the strategy of the business unit level. Example if the level of the business unit level strategies have a new product to be marketed, the marketing team will conduct a campaign to market the product bariu so they can be sold.
Generally this strategy in more detail and also have short term. The purpose of the development of this strategy is to communicate and determine the measures to achieve short-term goals.